The Subcommission is the primary body for facilitation of international communication and scientific cooperation in Cryogenian stratigraphy directed at better understanding Earth system evolution during the Cryogenian Period (c.720 – c.635 Ma). Its priority is the unambiguous definition, by means of global stratotype section and points (GSSP), of a hierarchy of chronostratigraphic units that provide the framework for correlation of Cryogenian strata.

Compiled publications by voting members

Yuan, L., Zhou, Y., Chen, X., Zhu, M., Poulton, S. W., Tian, Z., . . . Shields, G. A. (2023). Multiple ocean oxygenation events during the Ediacaran Period: Mo isotope evidence from the Nanhua Basin, South China. Precambrian Research, 388, 107004. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2023.107004

Halverson, G.P., Porter, S.M. Shields, G.A. (2020) The Tonian and Cryogenian periods. In F. M. Gradstein (Ed.) et al., The Geologic Time Scale 2020. Elsevier Science Limited. pp. 495-519.

Park, Y., Swanson-Hysell, N.L., MacLennan, S., Maloof, A., Schoene, B., Tremblay, M., Antilla, E., Gebreslassie, M., Tesema, T., Alene, M. and Haileab, B. (2020), The onset of the Sturtian Snowball Earth: Neoproterozoic chemostratigraphy time-calibrated by the Tambien Group of Ethiopia, Geological Society of America Bulletin, doi:10.1130/B35178.1

Will, T., Höhn, S., Frimmel, H.E., Gaucher, C., le Roux, P.J., Macey, P.H., 2020, Petrological, geochemical and isotopic data of Neoproterozoic rock units from Uruguay and South Africa: Correlation of basement terranes across the South Atlantic. Gondwana Research 80, 12-32.

J.M. McArthur, R.J. Howarth, GA Shields, Y Zhou, 2020, Geologic Time Scale 2020, Strontium isotope stratigraphy. 211-238.

Ying Zhou, Philip A.E. Pogge von Strandmann, Maoyan Zhu, Hongfei Ling, Christina Manning, Da Li, Tianchen He, Graham A. Shields; Reconstructing Tonian seawater 87Sr/86Sr using calcite microspar. Geology 2020; 48 (5): 462–467. doi:10.1130/G46756.

Guilbaud, R., Poulton, S.W., Thompson, J., Kathryn F. Husband, Maoyan Zhu, Ying Zhou, Graham A. Shields & Timothy M. Lenton. Phosphorus-limited conditions in the early Neoproterozoic ocean maintained low levels of atmospheric oxygen. Nat. Geosci.13, 296–301 (2020). doi:10.1038/s41561-020-0548-

Hanqing Zhao, Shihong Zhang, Jikai Ding, Linxi Chang, Qiang Ren, Haiyan Li, Tianshui Yang, Huaichun Wu, (2020), New geochronologic and paleomagnetic results from early Neoproterozoic mafic sills and late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic successions in the eastern North China Craton, and implications for the reconstruction of Rodinia. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 132 (3/4): 739-766

Caxito, F. D. A., Santos, L. C. M. D. L., Ganade, C. E., Bendaoud, A., Fettous, E. H., & Bouyo, M. H. (2020). Toward an integrated model of geological evolution for NE Brazil-NW Africa: The Borborema Province and its connections to the Trans-Saharan (Benino-Nigerian and Tuareg shields) and Central African orogens. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 50(2).

Chuanming Zhou, M. H. Huyskens, Shuhai Xiao, Qing-Zhu Yin, (2020). Refining the termination age of the Cryogenian Sturtian glaciation in South China. Palaeoworld, doi:10.1016/j.palwor.2020.04.00

Chuanming Zhou, M. H. Huyskens, Xianguo Lang, Shuhai Xiao, Qing-Zhu Yin, (2019). Calibrating the terminations of Cryogenian global glaciations. Geology, 47: 251-254. doi:10.1130/G45719

Shields, G.A., Mills, B.J.W., Zhu, M., Daines, S., Lenton, T.M. (2019) Unique Neoproterozoic carbon isotope excursions sustained by coupled evaporite dissolution and pyrite burial. Nature Geoscience, 12, 823-827.

Amaral, L., de Andrade Caxito, F., Pedrosa-Soares, A. C., Queiroga, G., Babinski, M., Trindade, R., … & Chemale, F. (2020). The Ribeirão da Folha ophiolite-bearing accretionary wedge (Araçuaí orogen, SE Brazil): new data for Cryogenian plagiogranite and metasedimentary rocks. Precambrian Research, 336, 105522.

Caxito, F. D. A., Uhlein, G. J., Uhlein, A., Pedrosa-Soares, A. C., Kuchenbecker, M., Reis, H., … & Vieira, L. C. (2019). Isotope stratigraphy of Precambrian sedimentary rocks from Brazil: Keys to unlock Earth’s hydrosphere, biosphere, tectonic, and climate evolution. In Stratigraphy & Timescales (Vol. 4, pp. 73-132). Academic Press. ​ Lamothe, K.G., Hoffman, P.F., Halverson, G.P., (2019). Stratigraphy and isotope geochemistry of the pre-Sturtian Ugab Subgroup, Otavi Group, northwestern Namibia. Precambrian Research, 332, 10.1016/j.precamres.2019.105387.

Lechte, M.A., Wallace, M.W., Hood, A. v.-S., Li, W., Jiang, G., Halverson, G.P., Asael, D., McColl, S., Planavsky, N.J., (2019). Subglacial meltwater supported aerobic marine habitats during Snowball Earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 161, 25478–25483.

Zi, J.-W., Jourdan, F., Wang. X.-C., Haines, P.W., Rasmussen, B., Halverson, G., Sheppard, S., (2019). Pyroxene 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalt and applications to large igneous provinces and Precambrian stratigraphic correlations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 124, 8313–8330.

Will, T., Gaucher, C., Li, Q., Ling, X.-X., Li, X.-H., Frimmel, H., 2019, Neoproterozoic magmatic and metamorphic events in the Cuchilla Dionisio Terrane, Uruguay, and possible correlations across the South Atlantic. Precambr. Res. 320, 303-322.

Fairchild, I.J., Spencer, A.M., Ali, D.O., Anderson, R.P., Anderton, R., Boomer, I., Dove, D., Evans, J.D., Hambrey, M.J., Howe, J., Sawaki, Y., Wang, Z., Shields, G., Skelton, A. Tucker, M.E. and Zhou, Y. 2018 Tonian-Cryogenian boundary sections of Argyll, Scotland. Precambrian Research, 319, 37-64.

Cox, G.M., Halverson, G.P., Denyszyn, S., Foden, J., Macdonald, F., (2018). Cryogenian magmatism along the north-western margin of Laurentia: Plume or Rift? Precambrian Research, 319, 144–157.

Frimmel, H.E., 2018, The Gariep Belt. In Siegesmund, S., Basei, M.A.S., Oyhantcabal, P., Oriolo, S. (eds), Geology of Southwest Gondwana. Regional Geology Reviews, Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, 353-386.

Halverson, G.P., Porter, S.M., Gibson, T.M., (2018). Dating the Late Proterozoic stratigraphic record. Emerging Topics in the Life Sciences, 2, 137–147.

Halverson, G.P., Kunzmann, M., Strauss, J.V., Maloof, A.C., (2018). The Tonian-Cryogenian transition in Svalbard. Precambrian Research, 319, 79–95.

Xianguo Lang, Bing Shen, Yongbo Peng, Shuhai Xiao, Chuanming Zhou, Huiming Bao, Alan Jay Kaufman, Kangjun Huang, Peter W. Crockford, Yonggang Liu, WenboTang, Haoran Ma, (2018). Transient marine euxinia at the end of the terminal Cryogenian glaciation. Nature Communications, 9: 3019. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-05423-x

Xianguo Lang, Jitao Chen, Huan Cui, Ling Man, Kang-Jun Huang, Yong Fu, Chuanming Zhou, Bing Shen, (2018). Cyclic cold climate during the Nantuo Glaciation: Evidence from the Cryogenian Nantuo Formation in the Yangtze Block, South China. Precambrian Research, 310: 243-255.

Xiujuan Bao, Shihong Zhang, Ganqing Jiang, Huaichun Wu, Haiyan Li, Xinqiang Wang, Zhengze An, Tianshui Yang, (2018), Cyclostratigraphic constraints on the duration of the Datangpo Formation and the onset age of the Nantuo (Marinoan) glaciation in South China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 483, 52–63.

MacLennan, S., Park, Y., Swanson-Hysell, N.L., Maloof, A., Schoene, B., Gebreslassie, M., Antilla, E., Tesema, T., Alene, M. and Haileab, B. (2018), The arc of the Snowball: U-Pb dates constrain the Islay anomaly and the initiation of the Sturtian glaciation, Geology, doi:10.1130/G40171.1

Basei, M.S.A., Frimmel, H.E., Campos Neto, M.C., Ganade de Araujo, C.E., de Castro, N.A., Passarelli, C.R., 2018, The tectonic history of the Southern Adamastor Ocean based on a correlation of the Kaoko and Dom Feliciano belts. In Siegesmund, S., Basei, M.A.S., Oyhantcabal, P., Oriolo, S. (eds), Geology of Southwest Gondwana. Regional Geology Reviews, Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, 63-88.

Cohen, P. A., Riedman, L. A. (2018), It’s a protist-eat-protist world: recalcitrance, predation, and evolution in the Tonian-Cryogenian oceans, Emerging Topics in Life Sciences. ETLS20170145; doi:10.1042/ETLS2017014

Porter, S. M., Agić, H., Riedman, L. A. (2018), Anoxic ecosystems and early eukaryotes, Emerging Topics in Life Sciences.ETLS20170162; doi:10.1042/ETLS2017016

Riedman, L. A., Sadler, P. M. (2018), Global species richness record and biostratigraphic potential of early to middle Neoproterozoic eukaryote fossils. Precambrian Research. v. 319, pp. 6-18. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2017.10.00

Riedman, L. A., Porter, S. M. and Calver, C. (2018), Vase-shaped microfossil biostratigraphy with new data from Tasmania, Svalbard, Greenland, Sweden and the Yukon. Precambrian Research. v. 319, pp. 19-36. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2017.09.01

Shields G.A., Halverson, G.P., Porter, S.M. (2018) Descent into the Cryogenian. Precambrian Research, doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2018.08.015. 319, 1-5

Uhlein, G. J., Uhlein, A., Halverson, G. P., Stevenson, R., Caxito, F. A., Cox, G. M., & Carvalho, J. F. (2016). The Carrancas Formation, Bambuí Group: a record of pre-Marinoan sedimentation on the southern São Francisco craton, Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 71, 1-16.

Caxito, F. A., Uhlein, A., Dantas, E. L., Stevenson, R., Salgado, S. S., Dussin, I. A., & da Nóbrega Sial, A. (2016). A complete Wilson Cycle recorded within the Riacho do Pontal Orogen, NE Brazil: Implications for the Neoproterozoic evolution of the Borborema Province at the heart of West Gondwana. Precambrian Research, 282, 97-120.

Riedman, L. A., Porter, S. M. (2016), Organic-walled microfossils of the mid-Neoproterozoic Alinya Formation, Officer Basin, Australia. Journal of Paleontology. v. 90, pp. 854–887.

Porter, S. M., Riedman, L. A. (2016), Systematics of organic-walled microfossils from the ~780–740 Ma Chuar Group, Grand Canyon, Arizona. Journal of Paleontology. v. 90, pp. 815–853.

Fairchild, I.J., Fleming, E.J., Bao, H., Benn, D.I., Boomer, I., Dublyansky, Y.V., Halverson, G.P., Hambrey, M.J., Hendy, C., McMillan, E.A., Spötl, C., Stevenson, C.T.E. and Wynn, P.M. 2016 Continental carbonate facies of a Neoproterozoic panglaciation, NE Svalbard. Sedimentology, 63, 443-497.

Fairchild, I.J., Bonnand, P., Davies, T., Fleming, E.J., Grassineau, N., Halverson, G.P., Hambrey, M.J., McMillan, E.A., McKay, E., Parkinson, I.J. and Stevenson, C.T.E. 2016 The Late Cryogenian Warm Interval, NE Svalbard: chemostratigraphy and genesis of dolomitic shales. Precambrian Research, 281, 128-154.

Fleming, E.J., Benn, D.I., Stevenson, C.T.E., Petronis, M.S., Hambrey, M.J. and Fairchild, I.J. 2016 Glacitectonism, subglacial and glacilacustrine processes during a Neoproterozoic panglaciation, northeast Svalbard. Sedimentology, 63, 411-442.

He, T., Zhou, Y., VERMEESCH, P., Rittner, M., Miao, L., Zhu, M., . . . Shields, G. (2016). Measuring the ‘Great Unconformity’ on the North China Craton using new detrital zircon age data. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 448, SP448.14. doi:10.1144/SP448.1

Spence, G.H., Le Heron, D.P. and Fairchild, I.J. 2016 Sedimentological Perspectives on Climatic, Atmospheric and Environmental Change in the Neoproterozoic Era. Sedimentology. 63, 253-306.

Shields, G.A., Porter, S., Halverson, G.P. (2016) A new rock-based definition for the Cryogenian Period (circa 720-635 Ma). Episodes, 39, 3-8.

Benn, D.I., Le Hir, G., Bao, H., Donnadieu, Y., Dumas, C., Fleming, E.J., Hambrey, M.J., McMillan, E.A., Petronis, M.S., Ramstein, G., Stevenson, C.T.E., Wynn, P.M. and Fairchild, I.J. 2015 Orbitally forced ice sheet fluctuations at the end of the Marinoan Snowball Earth glaciation Nature Geoscience. 8, 704-707.

Riedman, L. A. (2015), Life during Snowball Earth. AccessScience, McGraw-Hill Education. doi:10.1036/1097-8542.YB150676

Swanson-Hysell, N.L., Maloof, A.C., Condon, D.J., Jenkin, G.R.T., Alene, M., Tremblay, M.M., Tesema, T., Rooney, A.D. and Haileab, B. (2015), Stratigraphy and geochronology of the Tambien Group, Ethiopia: Evidence for globally synchronous carbon isotope change in the Neoproterozoic, Geology, 43, 323-326, doi:10.1130/G36347.1

Spiegl, T., Paeth, H., Frimmel, H.E., 2015, Evaluating key parameters for the initiation of a Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth with a single Earth System Model of intermediate complexity. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 415, 100-110.

Will, T., Frimmel, H.E., Gaucher, C., Bossi, J., 2014, Geochemical and isotope evidence for initiation of Cretaceous South Atlantic opening along a former Neoproterozoic back-arc basin — Implications for the location of the main Pan-African suture in south west Gondwana. Lithos 202-203, 363-381.

​Riedman, L. A., Porter, S. M., Halverson, G. P., Hurtgen, M. T., Junium, C. K. (2014), Organic-walled microfossil assemblages from glacial and interglacial Neoproterozoic units of Australia and Svalbard. Geology v. 42, pp. 1011–1014.

Swanson-Hysell, N.L., Maloof, A.C., Kirschvink, J.L., Halverson, G.P., and Hurtgen, M.T. (2012), Constraints on Neoproterozoic paleogeography and Paleozoic orogenesis from paleomagnetic records of the Bitter Springs Formation, Amadeus Basin, central Australia, American Journal of Science, 312, 817-884, doi:10.2475/08.2012.01

Frimmel, H.E., Basei, M.A.S., Correa, V.X., Mbangula, N., 2013, A new lithostratigraphic subdivision and geodynamic model for the Pan-African western Saldania Belt, South Africa. Precambrian Research 231, 218-235.

Shields, G.A., Hill, A. C., Macgabhann, B. A. (2012) The Cryogenian Period. In F. M. Gradstein et al. (eds.), The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Elsevier Science Limited. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-59425-9.00017-X.

Shields, G.A., Och, L.M. (2011) The case for a Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event: geochemical evidence and biological consequences. GSA Today, 21(3), 4-11. doi:10.1130/GSATG102A.1

Arnaud, E., Halverson, G. P., Shields, G.A. (eds.) (2011) The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations. Geological Society of London Memoir 36, 721 pp.

Frimmel, H.E., Basei, M.S., Gaucher, C., 2011, Neoproterozoic geodynamic evolution of SW-Gondwana: a southern African perspective. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 100, 323-354.

Frimmel, H.E., 2011, The Karoetjes Kop and Bloupoort Formations, Gifberg Group, South Africa. In Arnaud, E., Halverson, G. P. & Shields-Zhou, G. (eds), The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 36, 233–237.

Frimmel, H.E., 2011, The Kaigas and Numees Formations, Port Nolloth Group, in South Africa and Namibia. In Arnaud, E., Halverson, G. P. & Shields-Zhou, G. (eds), The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 36, 223–231.

Frimmel, H.E., 2011, The Chameis Gate Member, Chameis Group, Marmora Terrane, Namibia. In Arnaud, E., Halverson, G. P. & Shields-Zhou, G. (eds), The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 36, 217–221.

Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E., 2009, The Neoproterozoic and Cambrian: A time of upheavals, extremes, and innovations. In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 3-11.

Grosch, E.G., Frimmel, H.E., Abu-Alam, T., Košler, J., 2015, Metamorphic and age constraints on crustal reworking in the western HU Sverdrupfjella: implications for the evolution of western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. J. Geol. Soc. London, 172, 499-518.

Kaufman, A.J., Sial, A.N., Frimmel, H.E., Misi, A., 2009, Neoproterozoic to Cambrian palaeoclimatic events in southwestern Gondwana. In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 369-388.

Frimmel, H.E., 2010, On the reliability of stable carbon isotopes for Neoproterozoic chemostratigraphic correlation. Precambrian Research, 182, 239-253.

Frimmel, H.E., 2009, Trace element distribution in Neoproterozoic carbonates as palaeoenvironmental indicator, Chemical Geology 258, 338-353.

Miller, R.McG., Frimmel, H.E., Halverson, G.P., 2009, Passive continental margin evolution. Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic evolution of southwestern Africa. In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 161-181.

Miller, R.McG., Frimmel, H.E., Will, T.M., 2009, Geodynamic synthesis of the Damara Orogen sensu lato. Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic evolution of Southwestern Africa. In Gaucher, C., Sial, A.N., Halverson, G.P., Frimmel, H.E. (eds.), Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Tectonics, Global Change and Evolution: a Focus on Southwestern Gondwana, Developments in Precambrian Geology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, v. 16, p. 231-235.

Frimmel, H. E., 2008, An evaporitic facies in Neoproterozoic post-glacial carbonates: the Gifberg Group, South Africa: Gondwana Research 13, p. 453-468.

Frimmel, H.E., 2008, Neoproterozoic Gariep Orogen. In: Miller, R. McG. (ed.) The Geology of Namibia, Geol. Surv. Namibia. Windhoek, v. 2, p. 14-1 – 14-39.

Basei, M. A. S., Frimmel, H. E., Nutman, A. P., Preciozzi, F., 2008, West Gondwana amalgamation based on detrital zircon ages from Neoproterozoic Ribeira and Dom Feliciano belts of South America and comparison with coeval sequences from SW Africa, in Pankhurst, R. J., Trouw, R. A. J., De Brito Neves, B. B., and de Wit, M. J. (eds.), West Gondwana: Pre-Cenozoic Correlations Across the South Atlantic Region, Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ. No. 294, p. 239-256.

Shields, G.A. (2005) Neoproterozoic cap carbonates: a critical appraisal of existing models and the plumeworld hypothesis. Terra Nova, 17 (4), 299-310. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3121.2005.00638.x